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Progress Against Aging beta

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To determine what progress is being made against aging (reversing aging rather than merely slowing it down; please see the "Aging and How to Defeat It" page for further details), it is necessary to track two initiatives—the Mprize and SENS—that promise to accelerate progress against aging with the goal of eventually defeating aging. The Mprize's money pot must grow in order for it to continue encouraging scientists to create ever long-lived mice using interventions that could be adapted to work at defeating aging in people. The larger the Mprize becomes, the more effective it will be at creating competition among scientists. SENS is a set of medical therapies that have been proposed to entirely defeat aging in people. Each of these therapies is composed of multiple projects which are in different stages of development.

The Mprize

The Methuselah Foundation's Mprize is a competition that encourages scientists to compete in creating ever long-lived mice. The Mprize consists of the following separate prize competitions:

  • the Longevity Prize, awarded to the research team that breaks the world record for the oldest mouse using any kind of intervention, and
  • the Rejuvenation Prize, awarded to the research team that breaks the world record for the greatest extension of lifespan in mice after only getting started with treatment when the mice are already late into their lives.

By seeking interventions that are initiated at a late age, the Rejuvenation Prize encourages scientific research that is most likely to benefit people that are alive today. The latest winner of the Rejuvenation Prize, Dr. Stephen Spindler of UC Riverside, used an intervention called calorie restriction to produce a group of mice that lived for an average of 1,356 days (3.7 years). Since interventions that merely slow aging such as calorie restriction will not be able to extend the lifespans of mice indefinitely, it will be necessary to employ other kinds of interventions that seek to reverse aging such as SENS in order to win future Rejuvenation Prizes.

Rejuvenation Prize Progress

In order for the Mprize to continue encouraging scientists to create long-lived mice using interventions that could be adapted to work for people, the amount of prize money must increase as quickly as possible and become as large as possible. Since the Methuselah Foundation is a non-profit charity, it depends on donations to fund the Mprize. The following table displays the Rejuvenation Prize's winners and yearly funding progress:

YearFunding ProgressRejuvenation Prize Winners Average Mouse Lifespan Intervention
2004 $54,000* Dr. Stephen Spindler of UC Riverside 1,356 days (3.7 years) Calorie restriction
2005 $1.3 million* None N/A N/A
2006 $1.4 million* None N/A N/A
2007 $1.5 million* None N/A N/A
2008 N/A None N/A N/A
2009 $1.6 million* None N/A N/A
Present $3.3 million None N/A N/A

*From 2004 to 2009, it is unclear how much of the donations labeled "Commitments Outstanding" or "Other Commitments" on the Methuselah Foundation's "Funding" page were applied to its Rejuvenation Prize fund, and therefore, the listed funding figures only reflect minimum totals.

SENS Therapies and Projects

Currently, SENS is comprised of seven major types of medical therapies addressing seven major categories of aging damage. The following sections contain a list of projects for each of the seven major types of SENS therapies. For a more detailed explanation of how aging, aging damage, age-related disease, and SENS are related, please see the "Aging and How to Defeat It" page.

Except for most AmyloSENS and RepleniSENS projects, the non-profit SENS Foundation is largely responsible for progress in all of the other kinds of SENS projects and depends on donations to fund those projects.

SENS Project Stages

The following table displays the stages that every SENS project must go through before it can be approved for human use and the kind and number of SENS projects in each stage. Please note that this list of SENS projects is currently incomplete; more AmyloSENS and RepleniSENS projects and more complete background information for all other projects will be added in the near future.

Project StageSENS ProjectsTotal Projects (14)
Planned: Stage 1 of 7


Scientific research planned to be conducted to develop a therapy
GlycoSENS: Enzymes to Break Glucosepane Cross-Links
1
Discovery: Stage 2 of 7


Scientific research conducted to develop a therapy

AmyloSENS: Vaccine for Transthyretin Amyloid
ApoptoSENS: ? to Clear Aged T Cells
LysoSENS: Enzymes to Degrade 7KC
LysoSENS: Enzymes to Degrade Lipofuscin
OncoSENS: Innate Immunotherapy Against Cancer (Livly's Research)
OncoSENS: WILT (Whole-body Interdiction of Lengthening of Telomeres)
RepleniSENS: Reversal of Thymic Involution Using Growth Factors

7
Preclinical: Stage 3 of 7


Laboratory tests and animal studies to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of a therapy
ApoptoSENS: Filtering Procedure to Clear Aged T Cells
LysoSENS: Enzymes to Degrade A2E
LysoSENS: Laser Light to Degrade Lipofuscin
MitoSENS: Efficient, Allotopic Expression of All mtDNA
4
Phase I: Stage 4 of 7


Clinical studies in patients to demonstrate the safety of a therapy
None 0
Phase II: Stage 5 of 7


Clinical studies in patients to demonstrate the preliminary efficacy and gather more evidence of the safety of a therapy
OncoSENS: Innate Immunotherapy Against Cancer (Clinical Trial 08001-BMSCTI) 1
Phase III: Stage 6 of 7


Large-scale clinical studies in patients to provide proof of the efficacy and safety of a therapy
AmyloSENS: Vaccine for Beta-Amyloid
1
Approved: Stage 7 of 7


A regulatory agency approves the therapy for patient use
None 0

Details of SENS Projects

This section displays the details of every project and project component of each SENS therapy.

AmyloSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
AmyloSENS: Clearing junk outside cells
This kind of therapy aims to clear the protein junk, amyloid, that accumulates outside cells. This could be accomplished by using a vaccine to stimulate the immune system to digest this junk.
Junk outside cells
This kind of damage consists of the protein junk, amyloid, that accumulates outside cells and serves no useful biological purpose. The most well-known protein junk of this kind, beta-amyloid, is thought to be responsible for the development of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease
Diabetes, type II
Heart disease
Stroke
Vaccine for Beta-Amyloid
SENS Therapy
AmyloSENS: Clearing junk outside cells

Aging Damage
Junk outside cells

Age-Related Disease

Alzheimer's disease

Organization
Elan Corporation
Wyeth (Pfizer)

Project Stage
Phase III: Stage 6 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to develop an antibody-based (bapineuzumab) vaccine to stimulate the immune system in clearing beta-amyloid which is thought to be responsible for Alzheimer's disease.

Phase II Results
  • In patients without the ApoE4 protein, significant, positive changes were observed on both cognitive and functional efficacy endpoints.
  • In patients with the ApoE4 protein, no significant changes were observed in any cognitive or functional efficacy endpoints.
  • In patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid deposits are reduced by about 25%.
1999-2001: Positive effects of anti-beta-amyloid antibodies observed in mice
2005/04: First Phase II clinical study begins
2006/10: First Phase I clinical study begins
2007/12: First Phase III clinical studies begin
2010-2014: Several Phase II and Phase III clinical studies are due to be completed

Resources
Alzheimer Research Forum - Bapineuzumab
ClinicalTrials.gov - Search results for bapineuzumab
SENS Foundation - AmyloSENS
Vaccine for Transthyretin Amyloid
SENS Therapy
AmyloSENS: Clearing junk outside cells

Aging Damage
Junk outside cells

Age-Related Disease

Heart disease

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Discovery: Stage 2 of 7

Project Description
This project seeks to develop an antibody-based vaccine to stimulate the immune system in clearing transthyretin amyloid which is responsible for senile systemic amyloidosis, a cause of heart disease.

200?: The need for a transthyretin amyloid vaccine first recognized by Dr. Aubrey de Grey?
2010: Phase I of a four-phase research project is developed and funding is disbursed to Drs. Brian O'Nuallain and Sudhir Paul

Resources
SENS Foundation - AmyloSENS
SENS Foundation - New SENS Foundation-Funded Research Project: Catalytic Cleavage of Age-Related Cardiac Amyloid

A larger list of AmyloSENS projects is forthcoming.

ApoptoSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
ApoptoSENS: Elimination of death-resistant cells
This kind of therapy aims to get rid of death-resistant cells. This could be accomplished by injecting substances that kill only the problem cells, using genetic engineering to cause unwanted cells to self-destruct, or stimulating the immune system to destroy the target cells.
Death-resistant cells
This kind of damage consists of the accumulation of cells that do not die when they are supposed to and damage neighboring, healthy cells by secreting harmful substances. Some death-resistant fat cells promote type II diabetes, other death-resistant cells promote the progression of cancer, and death-resistant immune cells impair the healthy functioning of the immune system.
Cancer
Diabetes, type II
Heart disease (suspected)
Immune system dysfunction
Osteoporosis (suspected)
Filtering Procedure to Clear Aged T Cells
SENS Therapy
ApoptoSENS: Elimination of death-resistant cells

Aging Damage
Death-resistant cells

Age-Related Disease

Immune system dysfunction

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Preclinical: Stage 3 of 7

Project Description
This project seeks to develop a filtering procedure for clearing aged, immune system T cells, a major cause of immune system dysfunction.

Current Results

  • A procedure, nicknamed "scrubbing," that cleared T cells from the blood of mice has been developed
200?: Project component planning begins
2008: A procedure for clearing aged, immune system T cells begins to be developed
2009: A procedure, nicknamed "scrubbing," that cleared T cells from the blood of mice is developed

Resources

SENS Foundation - ApoptoSENS
SENS Foundation - Senescent T-cell scrubber

 

? to Clear Aged T Cells
SENS Therapy
ApoptoSENS: Elimination of death-resistant cells

Aging Damage
Death-resistant cells

Age-Related Disease

Immune system dysfunction

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Discovery: Stage 2 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to develop a ? procedure for clearing aged, immune system T cells, a major cause of immune system dysfunction.

200?: Project planning begins
200?: A research collaboration with Dr. Megan Smithey working in the lab of Dr. Janko Nikolich-Zugich at the University of Arizona begins

Resources

SENS Foundation - ApoptoSENS
SENS Foundation - Rejuvenating the immune system

GlycoSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
GlycoSENS: Breaking protein cross-links
This kind of therapy aims to break protein cross-links. This could be accomplished by developing specially-designed, cross link-breaking drugs, enzymes, or proteins.
Tissue stiffening
This kind of damage consists of structural proteins outside of cells that stick together ("cross-link") instead of easily moving past each other to provide flexible support for such tissues as artery walls, eye lenses, and ligaments. These cross-linked proteins stiffen tissues like the artery wall leading to high blood pressure.
Arthritis
Atherosclerosis
Cataracts
Diabetes, type II
Heart disease
Kidney disease
Skin aging
Enzymes to Break Glucosepane Cross-Links
SENS Therapy
GlycoSENS: Breaking protein cross-links

Aging Damage
Tissue stiffening

Age-Related Disease

Arthritis
Atherosclerosis
Cataracts
Heart disease
Kidney disease
Skin aging

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Planned: Stage 1 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to develop enzymes capable of breaking the ubiquitous glucosepane cross-links which may comprise as much as 98 percent of all long-lived cross-links and are associated with many age-related diseases.

Resources
SENS Foundation - GlycoSENS

LysoSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
LysoSENS: Clearing junk inside cells
This kind of therapy aims to clear junk that accumulates inside cells. This could be accomplished by equipping the lysosome with new enzymes taken from soil bacteria that are capable of degrading this junk.
Junk inside cells
This kind of damage consists of various kinds of junk that accumulate inside certain types of cells and cannot be broken down by the lysosome, the cell's most powerful garbage disposal machinery. This junk eventually fills up the cell making it dysfunctional or even killing it.
Alzheimer's disease
Atherosclerosis
Macular degeneration
Parkinson's disease
Skin aging
Enzymes to Degrade A2E
SENS Therapy
LysoSENS: Clearing junk inside cells

Aging Damage
Junk inside cells

Age-Related Disease

Alzheimer's disease
Atherosclerosis

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Preclinical: Stage 3 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to develop enzymes that can degrade A2E, a type of junk that accumulates inside cells and is responsible for age-related macular degeneration.

200?: Project planning begins
2007: Enzymes that could degrade A2E are identified
200?-Present: A drug delivery system for these enzymes is being developed
200?-Present: The action of these enzymes in cell and animal models of macular degeneration is being assessed in cooperation with Professor Janet Sparrow at Columbia University

Resources
SENS Foundation - Degradation of A2E
SENS Foundation - LysoSENS

Degradation of Lipofuscin
SENS Therapy
LysoSENS: Clearing junk inside cells

Aging Damage
Junk inside cells

Age-Related Disease

Alzheimer's disease
Macular degeneration
Parkinson's disease
Skin aging
Project Description
This project seeks to determine whether laser light can degrade lipofuscin, a general term for many kinds of junk that accumulates inside cells. 

Resources

SENS Foundation - LysoSENS
Organization
Immortality Institute
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Preclinical: Stage 3 of 7
Laser Light to Degrade Lipofuscin
This project seeks to determine whether laser light can degrade lipofuscin, a general term for many kinds of junk that accumulates inside cells.

Preclinical Results
  • Despite some environmental contamination of the experiment, there seems to be some benefit with the most heavily laser-treated group of worms.
2009/03: Project planning begins
2009/10: Worms start to be treated with different amounts of laser light
2010/01: Despite some environmental contamination of the experiment, there seems to be some benefit with the most heavily laser-treated group of worms, and replication with more redundancy and better control over environmental conditions is recommended.

Resources

Immortality Institute - Laser Ablation of Lipofuscin
Nason Schooler's Research Blog
SENS Foundation - Laser ablation of lipofuscin
Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Enzymes to Degrade Lipofuscin
This project seeks to determine whether laser light can degrade lipofuscin, a general term for many kinds of junk that accumulates inside cells.

Preclinical Results
  • Despite some environmental contamination of the experiment, there seems to be some benefit with the most heavily laser-treated group of worms.
2009/03: Project planning begins
2009/10: Worms start to be treated with different amounts of laser light
2010/01: Despite some environmental contamination of the experiment, there seems to be some benefit with the most heavily laser-treated group of worms, and replication with more redundancy and better control over environmental conditions is recommended.

Resources

Immortality Institute - Laser Ablation of Lipofuscin
Nason Schooler's Research Blog
SENS Foundation - Laser ablation of lipofuscin
Enzymes to Degrade 7KC
SENS Therapy
LysoSENS: Clearing junk inside cells

Aging Damage
Junk inside cells

Age-Related Disease

Alzheimer's disease
Atherosclerosis

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Discovery: Stage 2 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to develop enzymes that can degrade 7KC (7-ketocholesterol), a type of junk that accumulates inside cells and is implicated as a major cause of atherosclerosis and also involved in Alzheimer's disease.

200?: Project planning begins
2008: Preliminary work on 7KC is published
200?: Bacteria capable of degrading 7KC is cultured at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute
200?: Enzymes that could degrade 7KC are identified using a microarray program at Rice University
200?: Development of a drug delivery system whose goal is to get these enzymes into the macrophage lysosome where 7KC accumulates begins
200?-Present: These enzymes are being characterized and cloned into E. coli bacteria to allow more extensive testing

Resources
SENS Foundation - Degradation of 7KC
SENS Foundation - LysoSENS

MitoSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
MitoSENS: Mitigation of mitochondrial mutations
This kind of therapy aims to mitigate mitochondrial mutations. This could be accomplished by copying the mitochondrion's 13 protein-encoding genes into the cell's better-protected nucleus where most mitochondrial DNA resides anyway, repairing or replacing the mitochondrion's mutated genes, or preventing cells with mutant mitochondria from spreading free radicals to the rest of the body.
Mutations in the cell's mitochondria
This kind of damage consists of the accumulation of mutations in the 13 protein-encoding genes of mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, that—although present in a relatively small number (about 1%) of cells—generate free radical damage that spreads throughout the entire body. This free radical damage may lead to increased frailty.
Specific diseases unknown (but causes body-wide, free radical damage that may lead to increased frailty)
Efficient, Allotopic Expression of All mtDNA,
Copying the Mitochondrion's 13 Protein-Encoding Genes into the Cell's Nucleus, or
Efficient, Allotopic Expression of mtDNA and Protein Import into Mitochondira
SENS Therapy
MitoSENS: Mitigation of mitochondrial mutations

Aging Damage
Mutations in the cell's mitochondria

Age-Related Disease

Specific diseases unknown

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage

Preclinical: Stage 3 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to mitigate mitochondrial mutations by copying the mitochondrion's 13 protein-encoding genes into the cell's better-protected nucleus where most mitochondrial DNA resides anyway.

2006: Preliminary work is performed by Dr. Ian Holt at Cambridge University
2007: Extension of preliminary work is performed by Mark Hamalainen in the lab of Dr. Ian Holt at Cambridge University

Resources
SENS Foundation - MitoSENS
Project Component: Efficient, Allotopic Expression of mtDNA
This project component seeks to demonstrate efficient expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copied into the cell's nucleus (allotopic expression).

200?:
Project component planning begins
2008: Efficient, allotopic expression in cultured human fibroblasts carrying mtDNA mutations has been demonstrated by Mark Hamalainen at the lab of Dr. Marisol Corral-Debrinski at Institut de la Vision Paris
2009-Present: Allotopic expression in the eyes of rats is being assessed at the lab of Dr. Marisol Corral-Debrinski at Institut de la Vision Paris
Project Component: Efficiency of Transgenic Protein Incorporation into Mitochondria
This project component seeks to further validate results of the expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cell's nucleus by examining the efficiency in which the proteins created using mtDNA in the cell nucleus (transgenic) are incorporated into mitochondria using a technique called 2D Blue-Native PAGE.

200?: Project component planning begins
Future: This research will be performed in collaboration with the lab of Dr. Marisol Corral-Debrinski at Institut de la Vision Paris.
Project Component: Co-expression of Multiple, Allotopically-Expressed mtDNA Genes
This project component seeks to investigate the co-expression of multiple, mitochondrial (mtDNA) genes expressed in the cell's nucleus (allotopic expression) including a version of yeast NDI1 optimized for humans and/or mice.

200?: Project component planning begins
Future: This research will be performed in collaboration with the lab of Dr. Marisol Corral-Debrinski at Institut de la Vision Paris.

OncoSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
OncoSENS: Development of cancer cures
This kind of therapy—the most difficult to develop in the fight against aging—would rely on true cures for cancer. Several, potentially-revolutionary approaches exist—from the use of the body's own immune system to kill cancer to the removal of telomeres which cancer depends on to grow.
Mutations in the cell's nucleus
This kind of damage consists of mutations in the genes of the cell's nucleus. While most mutations are not very harmful, some mutations lead to cancer.
Cancer
Innate Immunotherapy Against Cancer
SENS Therapy
OncoSENS: Development of cancer cures

Aging Damage
Mutations in the cell's nucleus

Age-Related Disease

Cancer
Project Description
This project seeks to cure cancer by developing therapies based on the innate cancer immunity which some people seem to possess. Current adaptive immunity approaches rely on training the immune system to kill cancer but have yet to deliver on much of their promise. This may be because adaptive immunity is just too clever for its own good; perhaps cancer uses adaptive immunity's own high adaptability to always find a way to fool it. Instead of focusing on adaptive immunity approaches, this project seeks to use the more "stubborn" white blood cells (neutrophil granulocytes) of innate immunity to potentially circumvent the problems that have plagued the adaptive immunity approaches.

Besides WILT, this approach to curing cancer is the most promising of any being developed today.

1999: A single male mouse that unexpectedly survived challenges of lethal cancer cell injections is noticed by Dr. Zheng Cui in his lab at Wake Forest University School of Medicine
2003/04:
Results published by Dr. Zheng Cui demonstrated spontaneous cancer regression and complete cancer resistance in a unique strain of lab mouse due to its cancer-killing granulocytes
2006/05: Results published by Dr. Zheng Cui demonstrated the ability to cure cancer in normal mice by transferring granulocytes from the cancer-resistant mice 

Resources
Livly - Cancer Research
WFUSM - Spontaneous Regression of Advanced Cancer in Mice
Organization
South Florida Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant Institute
Life Extension Foundation

Project Stage
Phase II: Stage 5 of 7
Innate Immunotherapy Against Cancer (Clinical Trial 08001-BMSCTI)
This Phase I/II clinical trial seeks to determine whether white blood cell (granulocyte) infusions from healthy, unrelated donors can be used to treat cancer. It is designed to accommodate 29 patients, costs a total of $4 million, and is being conducted by Dr. Dipnarine Maharaj at the South Florida Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant Institute.

2009/04:
Clinical trial begins with just 4 patients due to lack of funding
2009/10: Paperwork starts for a $2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health which—if approved—will take at least one year to be awarded
2009/11: Clinical trial takes on a fifth patient

Resources
ClinicalTrials.gov - 08001-BMSCTI
Florida Atlantic University - Funding a cure
South Florida Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant Institute
Organization
Livly

Project Stage
Discovery: Stage 2 of 7
Innate Immunotherapy Against Cancer (Livly's Research)
Livly, a non-profit corporation, seeks to identify people that have granulocytes with exceptional cancer-killing ability and also identify drugs and other interventions that boost the cancer-killing ability of granulocytes in order to develop innate immune cell-based cancer therapies.

Current Results
  • In vitro testing indicates that the most potent human granulocytes found so far kill just 5% of cancer cells
2009/05: Livly's innate cancer immunity research begins
2009/06: Cancer-killing ability of human granulocytes confirmed by time-lapse video microscopy
2009/06: Preliminary, in vitro testing confirms that the cancer-killing ability of granulocytes differs among from different people but granulocytes do not seem to kill that many cancer cells
2009/08: In vitro testing indicates that the most potent human granulocytes found so far kill just 5% of cancer cells
20??/??-Present: A test is being developed to screen a large number of drugs and other interventions for their ability to improve granulocytes' cancer-killing ability
2009/12-Present: Livly partners with the Direct Oncology Foundation to raise $100,000 to sequence cancer resistant mice at Wake Forest University

Resources
Livly - Cancer Research 
WILT (Whole-body Interdiction of Lengthening of Telomeres)
SENS Therapy
OncoSENS: Development of cancer cures

Aging Damage
Mutations in the cell's nucleus

Age-Related Disease

Cancer

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage

Discovery: Stage 2 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to cure cancer by removing the genes needed to maintain the telomere-lengthening machinery of all cells in the body thus making it impossible for cancer to grow. Since dividing cells that lack telomeres will eventually stop growing after about a decade, the periodic reseeding of tissues using stem cells will be needed to maintain healthy tissues.

While WILT might appear to be too ambitious, it is meant to be a treatment-of-last-resort in case other potential cancer cures fail to work.

Resources
SENS Foundation - OncoSENS
Project Component: Characterization of the ALT Enzyme
This project component seeks to characterize the enzyme responsible for alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) which along with telomerase is responsible for maintaining a cell's telomeres without which cancer cannot grow. Recent observations indicate a previously unsuspected gene for ALT, and a relatively simple series of experiments could test these observations.

200?: Project component planning begins
200?: A preliminary search for ALT genes is performed by Matthias Bollmann at Gymnasium Carolinum
Project Component: Role of Telomerase Activity in the Stem Cell Niche
This project component seeks to determine whether telomerase activity—independent of telomere length—has a role in maintaining the health of stem cells or their rarely-dividing neighbors in the so-called "stem cell niche." This research will be .

200?: Project component planning begins
200?-Present: This project component has begun with research in the blood of mice at the lab of Dr. Zhenyu Ju at Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Project Component: Significance of Non-Cancer-Causing Mutations in a Normal Lifetime
This project seeks to determine the significance of non-cancer-causing mutations in the cell's nuclear DNA within a normal lifetime.

200?: Project component planning begins
200?-Present: This project component has begun at the lab of Dr. Jan Vijg at Albert Einstein College of Medicine

RepleniSENS

SENS TherapyAging DamageAge-Related Disease
RepleniSENS: Stem cells and tissue engineering
This kind of therapy aims to replace lost cells and organs that are damaged beyond repair. This could be accomplished by injecting stem cells into tissues and replacing entire organs with ones grown outside the body using tissue engineering techniques.
Cell loss
This kind of damage consists of the loss of cells in different tissues of the body such as the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. This cell loss eventually leads to tissue and organ dysfunction.

Tissue stiffening
This kind of damage consists of structural proteins outside of cells that stick together ("cross-link") instead of easily moving past each other to provide flexible support for such tissues as artery walls, eye lenses, and ligaments. These cross-linked proteins stiffen tissues like the artery wall leading to high blood pressure.
Alzheimer's disease
Arthritis
Atherosclerosis
Heart disease
Immune system dysfunction
Muscle atrophy
Parkinson's disease
Skin aging
Reversal of Thymic Involution Using Growth Factors
SENS Therapy
RepleniSENS: Stem cells and tissue engineering

Aging Damage
Cell loss

Age-Related Disease

Immune system dysfunction

Organization
SENS Foundation

Project Stage
Discovery: Stage 2 of 7
Project Description
This project seeks to reverse the shrinkage of the thymus (thymic involution), a major cause of immune system dysfunction, using growth factors.

200?: Project planning begins
200?: A research collaboration with Dr. Megan Smithey working in the lab of Dr. Janko Nikolich-Zugich at the University of Arizona begins

Resources

SENS Foundation - RepleniSENS
SENS Foundation - Rejuvenating the immune system

A larger list of RepleniSENS projects is forthcoming.

Acknowledgement

This page has been developed and is being maintained in cooperation with the SENS Foundation.